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619-620) "It seems that the discovery of ale was stimulated by the process of bread-making.

The upper part, accessible from the top, was the baking chamber.

An oven of similar shape, but often constructed of hollowed stone instead of clay, was used by the early Jews.

When the heat was sufficient the embers were raked out and the pieces of dough placed in the hollows and covered over.

In Jerusalem there was a bakers' quarter where bread was baked in tiers of stone-built ovens, or furnaces as they were called in the Bible.

For six thousand years and more it is the oven, however crude or complex, which has transformed the sticky wet dough into bread.

It is the oven which influences the final character of the loaf; the effieciencycy of an oven, or lack of it, can determine the success or failure of any bread baker's business. It was the Egyptians who first used a manufactured portable oven.

The oven opening was closed with a large stone, sometimes sealed with clay.

Ovens which worked on this principle, but were constructed of bricks or small stones, may still be seen in the ruined city of Pompeii.

Instead of placing the dough pieces for baking on the bottom or sole of the baking chamber, the Jews put the pieces on the sides.

Being damp and sticky they remained in place intil they had dried out, when they fell to the bottom of the oven.

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Archaelogical evidence confirms yeast (both as leavening agent and for brewing ale) was used in Egypt as early as 4000 B. Food historians generally cite this date for the discovery of leavened bread and genesis of the brewing industry.